Découvrir et utiliser les GPIO de la Raspberry Pi

Découvrir et utiliser les GPIO de la Raspberry Pi

General Purpose Input and Output, les GPIO sont exactement ce qu’il faut pour faire de la domotique avec sa Raspberry Pi !

La description est par ici



1. Généralités
2. Description des différentes pins



1-Généralités

La Raspberry Pi dispose d’un périphérique bien particulier pour un ordinateur : les GPIO. C’est bien là où se trouve la puissance de la Raspberry Pi. En effet, sur un ordinateur basique, on peut y brancher uniquement des périphériques « pré-fabriqués » du type souris, clavier, écran, clé USB
Pour permettre d’étendre le champ d’application de la Raspberry Pi, la fondation Raspberry a équipée ses cartes de GPIO (General Purpose Input and Output).

Pour les électriciens c’est plutôt simple à comprendre à quoi cela correspond. En fait, on peut faire l’analogie avec des API (Automates Programmables Industriels) où les GPIO correspondent aux entrées / sorties de l’automate.
Pour des électroniciens/informaticiens, la notion de GPIO est déjà connue car c’est quelque chose de répandu dans ce domaine. On trouve des GPIO sur d’autres cartes que la Raspberry Pi, sur la Beagle Bone Black par exemple.
En d’autres termes, les GPIO de la Raspberry Pi sont exactement ce qu’il vous fallait si vous souhaitez bricoler avec un automate et une page web (indirectement de la domotique ).

Les GPIO peuvent donner de nombreuses applications à votre Raspberry Pi. Par exemple, durant un projet scolaire, nous avons piloté un variateur de vitesse à partir des GPIO de la Raspberry Pi et une page web. Les GPIO contiennent des entrées/sorties logiques, des sorties analogiques, des liaisons séries

À partir de là, on peut imaginer le nombre d’applications possibles ! La Raspberry Pi vous offre la possibilité de réaliser des applications où uniquement votre imagination sera votre limite

2-Description des différentes pins

Selon les modèles de Raspberry Pi, les GPIO ne sont pas les mêmes. Sur le modèle Pi 3 B (celui auquel nous nous intéresserons ici), les GPIO se comptent au nombre de 40.

En voici le schéma :

 

 

Elles se présentent sous forme de broches mâles ou plus couramment appelées « pins ». En ce qui concerne le repérage, la pin 0 est celle en haut à gauche quand vous regardez la Raspberry Pi avec les ports USB en bas et le logement pour la carte SD en bas :

 

 

Cependant, pour commencer à faire quelques montages ou pour y brancher quoi que ce soit, vous remarquerez que tel quel, c’est plutôt compliqué
C’est pourquoi, personnellement, j’ai directement investi dans une platine d’électronique qui permet d’enficher des composants tels que des LEDs ou des résistances. Cette platine est fournie avec une nappe et une platine dédiée :

 

 

Vraiment très pratique pour commencer à faire quelques applications, je la conseille vivement !

Ensuite, il est intéressant pour vous que je vous décrive la fonction de quelques unes des GPIO.

GPIO DÉFINITION
5 V Tension de 5 V continu (DC) en permanence
3V3 ou 3,3 V Tension de 3,3 V continu (DC)
GND ou Ground Référence, 0 V ou bornes « – » pour vos circuits électroniques
GPIO2,3,4,17,27,22,5,6,13,19,26

GPIO23,24,25,12,16,20,21

Entrée ou sortie logique. Le niveau logique est de 3,3 V DC
GPIO 18 GPIO utilisable en tant que logique ou PWM (Pulse Width Modulation ou MLI en français pour Modulation de Largeur d’Impulsion). Ceci peut être considéré comme une sortie analogique avec tension de sortie variable entre 0 et 3.3 V DC
GPIO 14 et 15 GPIO utilisable pour une liaison série de type Rx / Tx

 

Cependant, il y a une chose avec laquelle il faut être prudent durant vos manipulations : les courts-circuits. En effet, les GPIO de votre Raspberry Pi ne sont pas protégées (pas de fusible ou autre). De ce fait, soyez assez prudent au risque de mettre HS le processeur de votre Raspberry Pi


VOILÀ, CET ARTICLE EST TERMINÉ ! J’ESPÈRE QUE VOUS L’AVEZ TROUVÉ UTILE ET INTÉRESSANT. POUR D’AUTRES TUTOS AU SUJET DE LA CONFIGURATION DE LA RASPBERRY PI (RASPI-CONFIG, SSH, PASSWORD, 1-WIRE, GPIO, PWM, PAGE WEB), N’HÉSITEZ PAS À CONSULTER LES AUTRES ARTICLES DE BLOGÉCLAIR.COM.

MERCI DE LAISSER UN PETIT COMMENTAIRE, QU’IL SOIT POSITIF OU NÉGATIF, C’EST L’INTENTION QUI COMPTE :D

 


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